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Expedition to Egypt: November-December - 2013
7th_GuestDate: Monday, 19.05.2014, 10:28 | Message # 1
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EGYPT: November-December 2013.
Alexandria.




Alexandria is the second largest city in Egypt after Cairo. It is extending about 32 km along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.


Alexandria was founded around a small Ancient Egyptian town in 331 BC by Alexander the Great. It became an important centre of the Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Hellenistic and Roman & Byzantine Egypt for almost one thousand years until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded. Alexandria is best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos), Great Library and the Diocletian Column.

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SenmuthDate: Wednesday, 21.05.2014, 10:16 | Message # 2
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EGYPT: November-December 2013.
Behbeit-el-Hagar.

 



Behbeit-el-Hagar is located to the North-East of the Sammanud town on the Western coast of the Nile arm, called Damietta. Here, among the farmlands, there is an archaeological zone, enclosed with a high fence. This place is known as the Temple of the Goddess Isis.


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7th_GuestDate: Thursday, 22.05.2014, 06:30 | Message # 3
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EGYPT: November-December 2013.
Ahmad ibn Tulun Mosque.

 


Ahmad Ibn Tulun Mosque is located in the center of "Old Cairo" and is considered to be the one of the oldest Mosques in the city. It was built between 868 - 884 BC on a small hill Gebel Yashkur, which means "Hill of Thanksgiving." According to one of the local legends, it was the place, where the Noah's Ark has touched the shore after the Great Flood.


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7th_GuestDate: Sunday, 25.05.2014, 06:35 | Message # 4
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EGYPT: November-December 2013.
Giza. The Pyramid of Menkaure.

 


The famous Giza Plateau, where the three Great Pyramids and the Sphinx are located, is annualy visited by our by our researching team. The historical monuments of this territory - is an endless field of study for the scientists of many future expedition. To cover the general picture of this historical site is possible, but only due to step by step exploration, studying and thinking. During the expedition "Egypt: December 2013", we set two objectives - to study the "Osman Hole" on the Northern side of the Pyramid of Menkaure and to try to find the steps on the way to understanding the granit stone processing technologies, used by the ancient Pyramid Builders.


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7th_GuestDate: Monday, 26.05.2014, 04:48 | Message # 5
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EGYPT: November-December 2013.

Giza. The Pyramid of Neferefra.


 



According to the researches of the Egyptologists, King Neferefra began the building of his funerary complex in the South-West from the Pyramid of Neferirkare in Abusir. Because of the sudden death of Neferefra, the construction works of his complex were stopped. As a result, only a square basement structure (about 75 × 75 meters) has survived. The heigh of the Pyramid, towering above the desert level - was only 7 meters high. Other constructions of the funeral complex of Neferefra were completed during the reign of his brother - Nyuserre Ini.


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7th_GuestDate: Tuesday, 03.06.2014, 07:53 | Message # 6
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EGYPT: November-December 2013.

Dashur. Black Pyramid of Amenemhat III.


 




The Black Pyramid of Amenemhat III (Dahshur) is located 1.3 km to the east of the Bent Pyramid of Senefru. The first explorations of the Black Pyramid took place in the middle of the XIXth century and where provided by John Perring and Karl Lepsius. In 1894-1895 the Pyramid was studied by the French archaeologists Jacques de Morgan and George Legrain. Pyramid of Amenemhat III has a very complex internal architecture, unusual for the Pyramid Builders of the XII Dynasty.


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7th_GuestDate: Tuesday, 03.06.2014, 15:50 | Message # 7
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EGYPT: November-December 2013.

Dashur. Valley Temple of the Bent Pyramid of Senefru.


 




The Bent Pyramid is perhaps one of the first pyramid complex with a Valley Temple. Here we see features that later differentiate  between those of later Mortuary temples and Valley temples. An unroofed causeway with walls of Tura limestone ran from the upper pyramid complex. The Valley Temple was excavated in 1951.


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7th_GuestDate: Thursday, 05.06.2014, 05:30 | Message # 8
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EGYPT: November-December 2013.
Memphis. Museum of Ramsess-II.
 



During the excavation of Memphis, conducted by the Italian archaeologist Caviglia and English archaeologist Sloan in 1820 - a ten-meter (without feet) statue of Ramses II was discovered. It is made of a single piece of limestone. The legs and the pedestal of the statue was not found. The total height of the statue (with legs), probably, reached 13 meters.


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7th_GuestDate: Saturday, 07.06.2014, 07:59 | Message # 9
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EGYPT: November-December 2013.

Memphis. The Temple of Apis.



The ruins of the Temple of Apis is located to the west of the Museum of Ramesses II.


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7th_GuestDate: Sunday, 08.06.2014, 06:41 | Message # 10
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EGYPT: November-December 2013.
Memphis. The Temple of Ptah.

 



The Temple of Ptah, made ​​of blocks of pink and gray granite is totally destroyed. Now the foundation and the remains of the majestic ancient building are barely visible among the reeds in a swampy area, located in the north-west of the Museum of Ramses II.


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7th_GuestDate: Monday, 09.06.2014, 06:37 | Message # 11
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EGYPT: November-December 2013. Fayoum. Ancient Ocean Bed.




... About 250 million years ago, the World Ocean occupied almost the entire surface of the Earth. The whole African continent in those ancient times was under its waters. The layers of sedimentary rocks, such as limestones and sandstones gradually formed the plateau of Sahara Desert...



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7th_GuestDate: Monday, 09.06.2014, 07:04 | Message # 12
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EGYPT: November-December 2013.

 
Fayoum. Petrified Forest.
 



During the Oligocene (33.9 - 23.03 million years ago) the territory of Fayoum was represented by subtropical and tropical lowlands. The moist soils of the coastal plain, fed by heavy seasonal rainfalls, were favorable for a variety of flora and fauna, inhabited here. Large concentrations of petrified (or silificated) trees were found in the area of ​​Gebel Katrani.


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7th_GuestDate: Monday, 09.06.2014, 09:26 | Message # 13
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EGYPT: November-December 2013.

 
Fayoum. Stone Balls.
 



Stone Balls - is one of the spectacular mysteries of Nature, which can be found in New Zealand, Romania, Kazakhstan, Brazil, Russia, Costa Rica, the archipelago of Franz Josef Land, and also in Egypt. Here in Egypt, such spherical geological formations can be found in South Saqqara and Fayoum. Such nature "artifacts" are common to underwater lavas of extrusive rocks such as basalts, spilites, diabases, trachytes and porphyry. But, along with igneous rocks, the similar formations are laso observed among the sandstones. This chapter of our expedition report is devoted to such sandstone balls, "settled" in the sands of the Fayoum desert.


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7th_GuestDate: Tuesday, 10.06.2014, 06:37 | Message # 14
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EGYPT: November-December 2013.

 
Fayoum. Qasr-el-Sagha.
 



There is a small building, located in the desert, to the north-east of the Fayum Oasis. It is built of sandstone blocks, arranged in a style of "polygonal masonry." The walls of the building are not decorated with any drawings or inscriptions. First archaeological works here took place in 1884 by Baltic-German researcher George Schweinfurt.


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7th_GuestDate: Tuesday, 10.06.2014, 15:13 | Message # 15
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EGYPT: November-December 2013.

 
Fayoum Road & Widan-el-Farras.
 



During the period of rising of the Architecture and Construction in Ancient Egypt, the demand for building material for the Pyramids and Temples led to the development of a number of quarries, located along the Nile Valley. In this chapter we shall focus on one single fact - the 11-kilometer Road, connecting Egypt's largest basalt quarry Vidan-el-Farras with the Nile River through the Moeris Lake. .


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