The Pyramid of Unas

Interior and the Pyramid Texts.

For the first time, we were able to get inside the Pyramid of Unas!

The Pyramid of Unas is located at the southwest corner of the Djoser Complex in Saqqara. It is the first typical Pyramid. The rest of the Pyramids, officially dated by the VI Dynasty, are looking like the copies of the Pyramid of Unas. They obviously were constructed by a common project. The features of the external structure of the Pyramid of Unas were shown in the report of the previous expedition, but we also would like to share some more exterior measurements and calculations in the present report. According to the official data, the original length of the Pyramid's sides was 57.5 meters, and its height made 43 meters. According to our point of view, these parameters do not correspond to the typical design parameters of the similar to Pyramids. In addition there are reasons to believe that the Pyramid of Unas (as we watch it now), is just a "second stage" of construction, while the "third stage" was destroyed and its remains were completely dismantled and used in the construction of the Pyramid Temple and other satellite buildings. We suppose that the side of the Pyramid (completely finished) was 78.45 meters and its height made 52.5 meters ( or 150 and 100 qubits).

Lets pay attention to the fact, that the body of the Pyramid hides in itself the Pyramid of the "first stage" of construction. The evidence for this fact - is the niche, circumferential conjunction and the fragments of casing inside the wall masonry of the Pyramid. All these artifacts can be easily seen, while standing in the Descending Passage in 3,389 meters from the Pyramid's Entrance.

Thus it turns out, that the whole structure remained some kind of "matrioshka doll", including Pyramid inside the Pyramid, where three Pyramids had covered one another. Today we can see only two of them.

Such construction technique can be also observed in other Pyramids. Official science explain this fact as the result of numerous ancient rebuildings, but we have reason to suppose, that this way of Pyramid constructing - is an implementation of a certain design engineering for the concrete purposes, aimed by the Pyramid builders, according to the Pyramid purposes. Apparently, for the proper functioning of the Pyramids, it was necessary to have several layers of polished cladding in its thickness, reminding some kind of the "cake".

In favor of this hypothesis we would like to assume, that the Pyramids were constructed by the pre-fully developed project. This is evidenced by the great number of structural and architectural elements.

The diagram below shows the location of the Pyramid of Unas and the Labyrinths of Hotepsehemui.

Lets proceed to the describtion of the interior of the Pyramid of Unas.
The internal structure of the Pyramid is well-preserved. Tthe destruction is minimal.

The scheme of the complex:

The scheme of the interior of the Pyramid of Unas:

The Pyramid of Unas has a Descending Passage, Hall, Horizontal Passage, Antechamber, "Burial Chamber" with the sarcophagus inside, and the Chamber with three niches, located opposite to the "Burial Chamber".

Dimensions of the Descending Passage are standard for this type of the Pyramids. The Descending Passage leads into the Hall. After passing the Hall, there is a Horizontal Passage, which, for most of its length, is encased by the blocks of red granite. In the middle of the Horizontal Passage there are three granite portcullis, located in the granite niches.

Small niches for vertical limestone portcillis, above the Horizontal Passage.

The Pyramid is famous for its texts - so called Pyramid Texts. Here we can see the earliest version of the Pyramid Texts. All wall carvings are well-preserved. The inscriptions begin at the end of the Horizontal Passage, where the granite masonry ends. The inscriptions are carved ​​in plaster, attached to the limestone masonry of the Pyramid walls.


Moving further inside the Pyramid, we entering the Antechember. It has a gable ceiling as well as the "Burial Chamber". The walls are covered with the texts and the ceiling is decorated with the stars.

To the right - the is a passage to the "Burial Chamber" with the black sandstone sarcophagus. The walls and ceiling of the passage are also covered with the ancient texts.

The "Burial Chamber". At the far end of the "Burial Chamber", there is a black sandstone sarcophagus. It is polished and has no inscriptions. It stands on a stand, resting in 2 inches from the floor. All the walls of the Chamber are covered with the texts, except the area where the sarcophagus is placed.

Around the sarcophagus, the walls are covered with colorful ornaments, painted on plaster. Ceiling is painted with blue stars on a white background.

The design feature of the "Burial Chamber" and Antechamber is their engineering design of the walls. The ceiling blocks of the both chambers do not lean on the walls. Behind these false-walls with the texts, there are another walls, bearing the weigth of the ceiling. The distance between the wall and false-wall makes 20 cm.

To the left is from the Antechamber, there is passage, leading to the Chamber with Niches. The walls and ceiling of this passage has no any inscriptions. At the beginning of the passage there is a small step on the walls and the ceiling, as if the passage was ever closed by the lid.

The Chamber with Niches is wider, than Antechamber and the "Burial Chamber", but rather shorter. It has three vertical niches from the floor up to the ceiling. The ceiling is flat. No any inscriptions and drawings inside.

Below are some measurements of the Pyramid of Unas interior:

Descending Passage:

Width -1.351 m
Height - 1,313 m
Length - 11,017 m
The angle - 22.6 degrees

Niche on the ceiling in the Descending Passage:

Length - 2,405 m
Distance between the bottom of the niche and the lower end of the Descending Dassage - 5,223 m
The angle of inclination of the lower edge of the niche block - 66.1 degrees
The angle of inclination of the upper edge of the niche block - 68 degrees

The Hall: 

Length 3,829
width 2,064
Height 2,500

Horizontal Passage:

width 1,360
Height 1,321
length of 14,294

The portcullis

Distance from the far southern end of the Horizontal Passage - 4,803
Width of the third portcullis - 0,666 m
Distance between the third and second portcullis - 1.214 m
Width of the second portcullis - 0,722 m
Height of the chamber above the second portcullis - 3,588 m
Distance between the second and the first portcullis - 0,907 m
Width of the first portcullis - 0,724 m
Height of the chamber above the first portcullis - 3,402 m


Width - 3,102 m
Length - 3,741 m
The height in the maximum point - 4,934 m

Passage to the "Burial Chamber": 

Width - 1,370 m
Height - 1,393 m
Length - 1,641 m

"Burial Chamber": 

Length of the walls - 7,347 m
Length of the gables - 7,899 m
Width - 3,134 m
The angle of the ceiling blocks (from the both sides) - 43 degrees to the horizontal.
Minimum height of the chamber - 3,422 m
Maximum height of the chamber - 4,872 m


Length internal / external - 1,994 m / 2,667 m
Width internal / external - 0,629 m / 1,216 m
Depth - 0.689 m, depth from the step - 0,615 m
Height - 1,158 m
Angles: 90.5, 90.6, 91, 91 degrees


The passage between Antechamber to the Chamber with Niches:

Width - 1,151 m
Height - 1,180 m
Length - 1,646 m


Chamber with Niches:

Width - 6,769 m
Length - 2,115 m
Height - 2,581 m
Depth of the niches- 1,248 m
Width - 1,549 m, ​​1,559 m and 1,571 m









<< Bact to Saqqara

Discuss >>



© Copyright 2013 of ISIDA Project. All rights reserved.