The Pyramid of Jozer


The Step Pyramid of Djoser is the core of the ancient Saqqara complex. The Pyramid of Djoser is considered to be the first Pyramid in the history of mankind. According to the official version, it was built by the scientist and architector Imhotep. He built it for his master, the king of Upper and Lower Egypt - Djoser Nechericheta.

The Pyramid has a stepped structure. Studying the structure of the Pyramid shows a large number of rebuildings and repairs, which had strongly changed the scale of the whole building. According to the researches of the modern scientists, the whole complex of Djoser, including the Pyramid itself, has undergone a detailed renovation and restoration during the 26-28 Dynasties (Saiss Period). The external features of the Pyramid are described in the December report of the previous expedition. The aim of the March expedition - was exploring the interior of the Pyramid of Djoser.

The internal structure of the Pyramid of Djoser represents a vertical 30 meters Shaft, punched deep into the bedrock. The Shaft has a rectangular section - 10 x 12 meters. Dozens of tunnels, coming from different directions and at the different levels can be seen on the walls of this Shaft. At the bottom of the Shaft, there is a structure of black granite blocks, which occupies almost the entire area of the Shaft basement. This structure is considered to be the external sarcophagus of the King Djoser. It is located not at the very bottom of the Shaft, but on the layer of broken limestone blocks with stars carvings. The contents of this huge box - is still unknown.

From every angle on the walls at the bottom of the Shaft, one can see the tunnels of irregular complex shapes. These tunnels are going on the hundreds meters into the bedrock. We managed to visit the southeast tunnel system. The walls and ceiling there are covered with bas-reliefs with floral ornaments and scenes from the life of the King Djoser. Here we also saw blue glazed tiles, decorating the walls.

A special attention was paid to the design features of the main internal structure of the Pyramid. A huge Shaft has a well processed walls and four 90 degrees angles. Eleven vertical shafts with a square section of 1.5x1.5 meters are cut in the bedrock on the eastern side of the main Shaft of the Pyramid. All these narrow vertical shafts are reaching to the horizontal level of the bottom of the main Shaft. They are connected with the main Shaft of the Pyramid by the horizontal tunnels of the same section 1.5x1.5 meters.

This central structure, described above, is probably the Main Interior of the Pyramid, around which the entire complex was built by Djoser.

A number of tunnels of irregular forms, located around the central Shaft of the Pyramid, were built much later, by another more primitive technologies. Tunnels do not have straight walls and ceilings, and their height varies, forthing one crawl in some places.

The fact of existing of a great number of shafts in Saqqara - is of a special attention. The shafts with a rectangular section 8x10 meters are accompanied by the vertical shafts with the square section of 1.5x1.5m, connected with the main one at their bottom level, as well as we see it in Djoser's case. These shafts, located all over the Saqqara area were used as the tombs, during the XXIV-XXVIII Dynasty (Saiss Period). A good example is the Tomb of General Pedenisis and Amen Tefnakht, located to the east from the Pyramid of Unas.

There is a clear analogy between the buildings of III and XXIV-XXVIII dynasties, what is the real nonsense. It would be logical to assume that these shafts are much older than they are dated by egyptologists, who are basing on the their last application, as the tombs.

Therefore, we assume, that Imhotep just managed to clear one of the largest shafts, found in Saqqara, and has built something like a dome, made of rubble with wooden props and rough limestone blocks, which consequently became a Step Pyramid, which we are watching till our days.

Regarding the presence of the 11 well-processed massive blocks on the bottom of the central Shaft of the Pyramid of Djoser, we can logically assume, that they, probably, remained from the original structure and blocked the entrances to the 11 shafts, mentioned above.

During the present time, the restoration and research works are going inside and outside the Pyramid of Djoser.

For better orientation in the interior of the Pyramid, use the interactive scheme, shown below.

Click on the image of the camera to get a picture of the relevant place.

Southern Entrance to the Pyramid and descending into the Shaft:



Entrance to the one of the tunnels on the northern wall of the shaft.


The descent down the Shaft to the Sarcophagus of King Djoser.



The first photo of the next row shows the south passage to the central Shaft of the Pyramid. The second, third and fourth pictures are showing the lid of the sarcophagus of King Djoser. The last photo shows a passage between the sarcophagus and the wall of the Shaft.


The first photo below shows a cork in the lid of the sarcophagus of Djoser. The following pictures are showing the side tunnels, cut in the bedrock, perpendicular to the central Shaft.



The first three pictures of the row below are showing the wall of the sarcophagus of Djoser.


A room with blue tiles.




The first photo below is showing the bas-relief of the King Djoser. It is covered with gauze, because of the restoration work. Other four photos are showing the limestone blocks with the stars carvings. Lets note that unlike the stars, which are decorating the ceiling of the Pyramid of Teti Burial Chamber, the rays of the stars, found in the Pyramid of Djoser are asymmetrically arranged.



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