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The Bent Pyramid is perhaps one of the first pyramid complex with a Valley Temple. Here we see features that later differentiate  between those of later Mortuary temples and Valley temples. An unroofed causeway with walls of Tura limestone ran from the upper pyramid complex. The Valley Temple was excavated in 1951 and it was found that the walls were inscribed with reliefs. Prior to this, it was believed that temple walls were not decorated before the end of the 4th Dynasty. In addition to wall fragments, statues and stelae bearing the name of Sneferu were found. The excavation revealed a clear floor plan within a simple rectangular building surrounded by a temenos wall made of mudbrick. The causeway joins the southwest corner of the temple. Later temples have the causeway join up with the west wall of the temple itself. Two large stelae flanked the southern wall of the temple bearing the names and titles of Sneferu. The entrance to the temple is in the center of the southern wall, this led to the three main parts of the temple beginning with an entrance hall. This hall was flanked by two storerooms. Within this hall the walls were carved in bold relief with scenes depicting royal estates in the various districts or nomes.

The nomes of Upper Egypt were shown on the west wall while the nomes of lower Egypt appeared on the east wall. This has been referred to as the Hall of Nomes. This led to an open court with plain walls which in turn led to a 10 pillared portico with 6 shrine niches located on the north inner wall. These niches are the first of their kind that have been discovered. In later pyramid complexes, we see 5 niches appearing in the Mortuary temple. The walls of the portico were carved with scenes continuing to show the royal estates. Scenes were carved on the columns on at least two sides – these included depictions of the kings Sed Festival and the ceremonial visit to the shrines of Buto. Another fragment was found showing Sneferu being embraced by a lion goddess. Above the opening of the 6 niches the names of the king were carved flanked by emblems. These were also topped by a band of five-pointed stars. In the niches were life-size or larger than life statues of Sneferu in different poses and costumes, which were actually carved from the same huge limestone slabs that comprised the back walls, therefore interestingly these statues were attached and not free standing.

According to the material, taken from "Guardians Egypt".

Below are schemes of the Valley Temple of Senefru, made by Egyptian archeologist Akhmed Fakhry.


Ceremonial Causeway.

The Causeway, except its very beginning at the north-eastern corner of the Bent Pyramid consists of a small crumb of white limestone, forming a line from the Pyramid down to the Valley of the Temple. It is visible only from the satellite image. Below are photos of the preserved part of the Ceremonial Causeway, near the north-western corner of the Bent Pyramid.


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